The oldest earth layers are dating of 300 million years ago. The erea of the Netherlands today was in that time mostly water. When the crust of the earth started to rise in the last million of years, land arised out of the sea.
200.000 years ago, in the Riss-icetime our country was covered with ice from Scandinavia, it left a layer of clay.
After the temparature raised, the melting ice lead to a higher sea level and the land became swamppy. The clay ground was good to live on. The dunes along the coast were formed by the sea and the wind.
The West-coast of the country have the most polders, lakes and ditches and thats why it is called the lowland.
If you come to Amsterdam you will arrive 13 feet below sealevel. The new Amsterdam Airport is built in a former lake where the Dutch fought against the Spanish fleet. The lake was a hole for many shipwrecks.
-Schip- means ship and -hol- means 'hole': Schiphol Amsterdam Airport.
FACTS & FIGURES.
Capital city: Amsterdam
Seat of government: The Hague Population: 16 million
Population per km2 land: 470
Surface area: 41,526 km2 (7,637 km2 water, 33,889 km2 land)
Land below sea level: 24%.
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was founded on March 20, 1602. Ships sailed to Asia from Amsterdam, Delft, Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Middelburg and Rotterdam in order to conduct trade. The Dutch economy grew rapidly as a result. This trading company grew between 1602 and 1799 into one of the first true multinationals of the world.